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Zhuangzi Glossary and Index
     
 
Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu)   
    Zhuangzi Translation   
    Glossary/Index A to N   
    Glossary/Index P to Z   
    ZZ Links   







This page includes a glossary of the names of people and places used in Zhuangzi. It also includes an index for easy reference to the chapters in which each term is used.

(Note: If anyone can offer any corrections or additions to what I've included here, Please email me




Zhuangzi Glossary/Index A to N

A He Gan is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Family Man Sweet Lotus".
(Chapters: 22)

Ai (a border warden) is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Stop Right There". Border wardens and gate keepers were higher in status than common people, but lower than officials. If they had a daughter who was accepted by a king as a concubine, they could usually depend on getting a promotion in rank.
(Chapters: 2)

Ai (aka Duke of Lu 494 - 468 BCE) was a very strict ruler who admired the idea of righteousness set forth by Confucius. A year after the death of Confucius, Duke Ai of Lu ordered that a temple be built on the land where Confucius lived and taught his disciples. The Temple of Confucius is in Qufu, China, located in the southwest of Shangdong Province. It was the capital of the state of Lu in the Zhou Dynasty (1066-221 BC).
(Chapters: 5, 21, 32)

Ai Tai Ta is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Sad-Looking Horse Face."
(Chapters: 5)

Bai Gong (aka Bai Gong Sheng) was a prince in the state of Chu. In 479 BCE, Bai Gong gathered a band of armed followers and staged a revolt against Xiong Zhang, the current ruler of Chu. Bai Gong killed two officials while they were having an audience with Xiong Zhang in the palace and Bai Gong held Xiong Zhang as a hostage. Bai Gong wanted to dethrone Xiong Zhang and install his cousin, Xiong Qi, as the ruler of Chu. Xiong Qi refused to accept the offer and Bai Gong Sheng had Xiong Qi executed. On hearing of the rebellion against Xiong Zhang, an army and marched to the capital to rescue the ruler. In a battle near the capital, Bai Gong Sheng was defeated, fled to the hills and committed suicide.
(Chapters: 17)

Bai Ju is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Intent on Rectification".
(Chapters: 25)

Bai Li Xi (aka Lord Five Ram Skins) served as prime minister of the state of Qin in the seventh century BCE under the reign of the Duke of Qin (King Mu of Chu). There are various stories of how he became prime minister, but it is agreed that he was originally a worker on a farm, raising horses. After he became prime minister, he never forgot his lowly upbringing and didn't take on the fineries of his position. He would travel around the countryside without an entourage of carriages nor soldiers for protection. His virtuous deeds were so beneficial to the common people that when he died both men and women wept. Qin cultivated hundreds of miles of farmland and became the biggest power in the west.
(Chapters: 21, 23)

Bao Jiao was a recluse who praised himself for eating only the food he grew himself and wearing only clothes woven by his wife. He thought he was better than others for living this kind of lifestyle and admonished others for not doing so themselves. He eventually killed himself by tying himself to a tree until he dehydrated after being criticized by Zi Gong, one of Confucius' disciples.
(Chapters: 29)

Bao Shu Ya and Guan Zi were close friends and officials who supported their ruler, Duke Huan.
(Chapters: 24)

Bei Gong She is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Curator of the Northern Palace".
(Chapters: 20)

Bei Hai literally translates as "North Sea", and it refers to what is now known as the Bei Hai Sea (a gulf north of the Yellow Sea). In ancient China it was believed that the earth was a large square of land bordered by the Nan Hai (South Sea) to the south and the Bei Hai to the north. The territory in the middle included all the land now known as China. Zhuangzi created a name for the emperor of the Bei Hai: Hu (Nonchalant).
(Chapters: 7, 17, 30)

Ben Yi is probably the same character as Pu Yi Zi.
(Chapters: 12, 13)

Bian Qing Zi is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Master Expression of Good Tidings".
(Chapters: 19)

Bian Sui is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Impetuous Follower".
(Chapters: 28)

Bi Gan (aka Prince Bi Gan) was the uncle and chief minister of King Zhou of Shang. When Bi Gan stood up to the king, asking him to stop his mistreatment of the people, Zhou got angry and had his heart ripped out.
(Chapters: 4, 10, 20, 26, 29)

Bin was a small district in the northern section of the modern Shensi province which was inhabited by the Di tribes who were considered to be barbarians.
(Chapters: 28)

Bingist refers to followers of a philosopher named Bing. There are no records available about the philosopher Bing, but he was probably a member of the Hundred Schools of philosophers at the time whose writings have since been lost.
(Chapters: 24)

Black Palace See: Zhuan Xu

Bo Chang See: Da Tao, Bo Chang Jian and Shi Wei

Bo Cheng Zi Gao might have been a mythological person, but there is no reference to him in historical records. His name can be translated literally as "Mr. Successfully Promoted".
(Chapters: 12)

Bo Huang might have been a mythological person, but there is no reference to him in historical records. His name can be translated literally as "Self-Appointed Official", which could possibly refer to the fact that he was held up as the first person to have created positions of rank.
(Chapters: 10)

Bo Hun Mao Ren may be the same person as Bo Hun Wu Ren.
(Chapters: 32)

Bo Hun Wu Ren is probably a fictitious Master. His name can be literally translated as "Professor Confused Nonentity."
(Chapters: 5, 21)

Bo Le (aka Sun Yang) is a legendary person who was said to be a minister during the Qin Dynasty, charged with choosing war horses for troops. He was an expert in assessing horses. Whatever the horse, he could tell whether it was good or bad in quality at first sight. He was able to select horses that could run one thousand miles in a day - that is, horses of exceptional strength and stamina from among herds of even the best horses. People called him Bo Le (a celestial body in charge of the heavenly steeds), and he was often asked to appraise and select horses. To help people learn how to appraise horses so that fine animals like this would no longer fall into oblivion, he wrote an illustrated book entitled The Art of Looking at Horses and Judging Their Worth. The work, which was based on Sun's experiences and the knowledge he accumulated over the years would also ensure the art of horse appraising would never be lost.
(Chapters: 9)

Bo Yi was a legendary minister who abandoned his position in Zhou (c. 1027 BCE) along with his brother, Shu Qi. Bo Yi and Shu Qi were two sons of the lord of Guzhu. Their father wished to establish his younger son, Shu Qi, as his heir. Upon their father's death, Shu Qi abdicated in favor of Bo Yi. But Bo Yi said: "It is our father's will that you should rule." Then he ran away. Shu Qi was not willing to reign either, and ran away as well. The people of the state named a middle son as heir. They traveled north to Shou Yang mountain (in modern Shansi) which was in the territory controlled by the barbarians, and eventually died there of starvation rather than go along with the government. See: Hu Bu Xie, Wu Guang, Bo Yi, Shu Qi, Ji Zi, Xu Yu, Ji Tuo, and Shen Tu Di
(Chapters: 6, 8, 17, 28, 29)

Bu Liang Yi is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Rigidly Biased Fortuneteller".
(Chapters: 6)

Cai was a small state centered in in what is now the city of Zhumadian in Henan province. In 447 BCE it was conquered by the state of Chu.
(Chapters: 14, 20, 28, 29, 31)

Cang Wu was a territory located near Kwangzi in the south. It might have been on the western and southern borders of the state of Ren.
(Chapters: 26)

Cao Shang is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Businessman Cao", possibly referring to someone who is a merchant from the Cao tribe. The state of Cao was overtaken by the state of Song.
(Chapters: 32)

Chang Can is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Adept Navigator". He gave directions to Huang Di's chariot driver.
(Chapters: 24)

Chang Hong was an official to King Jing of the Zhou Dynasty (c. 520 - 476 BCE). He was killed and disemboweled for disagreeing with the King's military strategies.
(Chapters: 10, 26)

Chang Ji is a fictitious Confucian disciple. His name can be literally translated as "Ordinary Younger Brother."
(Chapters: 5)

Chang Wu Zi is a fictitious Daoist. His name can be literally translated as "Mr. Full Grown Shade Tree", possibly referring to someone who has reached (or considers himself to have reached) a certain level of spiritual attainment.
(Chapters: 2, 25)

Chen was a minor state based on a single urban center near what is now Huaiyang in the plains of eastern Henan province. Chen bordered the state of Chu on the south. After the conquest of the Shang Dynasty around 1046 BC, King Wu of Zhou sought out the potter Gui Man, a descendant of Shun, and gave him the fief of Chen. Chen was conquered by the state of Chu in 479 BCE.
(Chapters: 14, 20, 28, 29, 31)

Cheng of the North Gate was a fictitious character. The North Gate of the courtyard was the entry used by high officials, thus the most prestigious position for a gatekeeper.
(Chapters: 14)

Chi Gou is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Inquisitive Speaker".
(Chapters: 12)

Chi You was a mythical tribal chief in the 26th century BCE. According to Chinese legends, Chi You and his people rebelled against Huang Di in the open area at Zhuolu. Both sides used magical powers, but Chi You had the advantage because his troops were armed with forged swords and halberds. Using his power, Chi You covered the battle field in thick fog. Only with the help of a magical compass chariot could Huang Di's troops find their way through the mist. Chi You had gone for help to the Kuafu, a clan of giants in the north, and they drove Huang Di back 50 li. But, using strategy learned from the Goddess of the Ninth Heaven, Huang Di finally defeated them. Chi You retreated until he reached what is today's Shanxi, where he was captured by Huang Di's men and beheaded. To make sure the head would not reunite with the body, Huang Di sent it to be buried a thousand li away. The place where Chi You was beheaded came to be called Xiexian and is still known as that today. Nearby there is a salt lake with water of a reddish color, tinted, people say, by Chi You's blood.
(Chapters: 29)

Chi Zhang Man Ji is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Keeper of a list of the names of the dead".
(Chapters: 12)

Chong Mountain was possibly a a deserted mythological burial ground.
(Chapters: 11)

Chu was a kingdom in what is now southern China during the Spring and Autumn period (722-481 BCE) and Warring States Period (481-212 BCE). At the height of its power, the Chu empire occupied vast areas of land, including the present-day provinces of Hunan, Hubei, Chongqing, Henan, Shanghai, and parts of Jiangsu. The Chu capital was at Ying. (People were known as the Jia clan(ch. 23)?) In its early years, Chu was a successful expansionist and militaristic state. Chu developed a reputation for coercing and absorbing its allies. Chu grew from a small, dependent state into a large empire worthy of contention, even attaining the traditional title of one of "The Five Overlord States of the Spring and Autumn Period". Chu first consolidated its power by absorbing the lesser states within its immediate vicinity in Hubei; then it expanded into the north towards the North China Plain. The threat from Chu resulted in multiple northern alliances against Chu and its allies; these alliances successfully kept Chu in check, with its first major victory at the Battle of Chengpu. The kingdom's power continued even after the end of the Spring and Autumn period in 481. Chu overran Cai to the north in 447 BCE. During the Warring States Period, Chu was increasingly pressured by Qin to its west. Chu's size and power made it the key state in alliances against Qin. As Qin expanded into Chu territory, Chu was forced to expand southwards and eastwards, absorbing local cultural influences along the way. In 333 BCE, Chu and Qi partitioned and annexed the coastal state of Yue. By the late Warring States period (ca. late 300s BCE ), however, Chu's prominent status had fallen into decay. As a result of several invasions headed by Zhao and Qin, Chu was eventually subjugated by Qin.
(Chapters: 1, 4, 5, 12, 17, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29)

Chui was a legendary carpenter who has been accredited with inventing tools such as the curve, plumb line, compass and T-square.
(Chapters: 10, 19)

Confucius (aka Qui, Zhong Ni, Kongzi, Kong Qiu) (551 –479 BCE) was a famous Chinese thinker and social philosopher. His philosophy emphasized personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice and sincerity. His teachings are known primarily through the Analects of Confucius, a collection of "brief aphoristic fragments", which was compiled many years after his death. As a young man, he was a minor administrative manager in the State of Lu and rose to the position of Justice Minister. After several years working for the state of Lu, Confucius resigned because he disapproved of the politics of his King. He then began a long journey around the small kingdoms of north-central China. He tried, unsuccessfully, to convince many different rulers of the correctness of his political beliefs and to see them implemented. (The Jesuits, while translating Chinese books into Western languages, translated the Kongzi as Confucius . This Latinised form has since been commonly used in Western countries.)
(Chapters: 2, 4, 5, 6, 13, 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32)
Confucian (Chapters: 2, 11, 12, 14, 22, 24, 29, 32)

Cong (state of) See: Zong, Kuai and Xu Ao
(Chapters: 4)

Cook Ding is a fictional character. His name can be translated literally as "Head Chef".
(Chapters: 2)

Cui Qu is probably a fictional disciple of Laozi. His name can be translated literally as "Anxious Mountain Bird".
(Chapters: 11)

Da Gong Ren was a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Impartial Observer".
(Chapters: 20)

Dai Jen Ren is a fictitious philosopher. His name can be literally translated as "One with Different Perspectives".
(Chapters: 25)

Da Kui might refer to a specific place in the Ju Ci mountains. It's name can be literally translated as "Great Heights".
(Chapters: 24)

Da Lu See: Huang Zhong and Da Lu
(Chapters: 8)

Dan Bao is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Solitary Leopard", possibly referring to someone who was a hermit.
(Chapters: 19)

Dark Tiger was probably a fictitious character who was a notorious criminal.
(Chapters: 17)

Da Tao, Bo Chang Jian and Shi Wei are referred to as the Great Historians, but there is no record of their existence so they are probably fictitious characters. Da Tao can be literally translated as "Great Sword Sheath", Bo Chang Jian as "Uncle Constant Obstruction", and Shi Wei as "Soft Leather from a Fattened Pig". Their names may reflect the way they chose to view and speak about events that had occurred in the past.
(Chapters: 25)

Da Ting might have been a mythological person, but there is no reference to him in historical records. His name can be translated literally as "Great Palace", which could possibly refer to the fact that he was held up as the first person to have built a palace.
(Chapters: 10)

Deng was a rustic and unpopulated area in modern Henan province.
(Chapters: 24)

Deng Heng may have been one of Tang's (King Cheng Tang) officials, but he could be a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Constantly Climbing".
(Chapters: 25)

Deng Linzi See: Xianli Qin, Wu Hou, Ruo Huo, Yi Chi, and Deng Linzi
(Chapters: 33)

Di is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Dazzling".
(Chapters: 32)

Diao Ling was possibly a hunting area reserved for the king, or maybe a park set up to preserve the local wildlife. There's no reference as to the location of Diao Ling.
(Chapters: 20)

Ding (the cook/butcher) See: Cook Ding

Di tribes were people who lived in the northernmost area of China. They were considered to be barbarians who had no interest in cultivating themselves, but were only out to gain more territory by any means whatsoever.
(Chapters: 28)

Dong Guo Shun Zi is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Mr. Guard of the Eastern Wall". The gate in the eastern wall of a city was where the most prominent visitors were checked by the guard and admitted to the city. Dong Guo Shun Zi is presented as a teacher and Daoist adept, so maybe his name refers to someone who has the ability to know what to allow to enter his spirit and what to turn away.
(Chapters: 21)

Dong Guo Zi is probably the same person as Dong Guo Shun Zi.
(Chapters: 22, 27)

Dong Ling was the mountain where Robber Zhi and his band of thieves had their headquarters. It could be a fictitious mountain, or it could refer to a modern mountain by the same name in Eastern China.
(Chapters: 8)

Dong Ting Lake is located in northeastern Hunan province and is the second largest freshwater lake in China. Huang Di (The Yellow Emperor) had his palace built next to it and entertained visitors there.
(Chapters: 14, 18)

Dong Wu is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Expressionless Tree".
(Chapters: 24)

Dong Ye Ji is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Reckless Driver from the East".
(Chapters: 19)

Duke Huan See: Huan (Duke of Qi)

Duke Kang of Qi supposedly reigned from 404 - 379 BCE, but there is nothing else in the historical records about him.
(Chapters: 24)

Duke Mu of Qin was a ruler of the State of Qin from 659 - 621 BCE. He greatly expanded the territory of Qin. He acquired many talented advisors, including Bai Li Xi and Gong Sun. He was known as one of the most powerful overlords of the time, constantly trying to enlarge his territory by going to battle with the neighboring state of Jin.
(Chapters: 21, 23)

Duke Wei of Zhou is possibly a fictitious character, as there is no historical record of him.
(Chapters: 19)

Duke Wen of Qin (c. 746 BCE) was the son of Duke Xiang and took over the throne after his father was killed in battle. During the first sixteen years of his reign, he moved the capital city on the advice of the Yi Jing and established the Altar of Fu there, where he made sacrifices to the gods. It was during his reign that historians first began keeping written records. He then began waging battles with neighboring states and extended the area of Qin. Duke Wen also instigated a law demanding that three sets of relatives of a convicted criminal should be put to death along with the criminal.
(Chapters: 29)

Duke Yuan See: Lord Yuan of Song

Duke Zhao was a brother of King Wu of Zhou. He was given a fiefdom called Yan and joined with his brother, Duke Zhou, to set up a ranking system for officials thereby ensuring their loyalty.
(Chapters: 14)

Duke Zhou was a brother of King Wu of Zhou. Two years after King Wu conquered Shang, he died, leaving only one very young son to succeed him. While it was the Shang custom to pass the throne from older to younger brother within one generation, the tradition of the Zhou people had been that their throne should pass only from father to son. Upon the death of King Wu, his younger brother, the Duke Zhou, seized power, claiming that it was his intention to preside only as an emergency measure until his nephew came of age. A number of his other brothers believed instead that the Duke was seizing the throne in the manner of former Shang kings and they raised a rebellion. The Duke not only put down the rebellion, but followed this forceful confirmation of his claim to ultimate power by actually doing what he had promised all along. When his nephew, the future King Cheng, came of age, the Duke ceded to him full authority to rule and retired to an advisory role. Duke Zhou fought with the rulers of eastern states who joined with the remnants of the Shang to oppose the Zhou. The east was conquered in five years. According to Chinese legend, he annotated the hexagrams and completed the classic of I Ching, established the Rites of Zhou and created the Classic of Music.
(Note: Chapter 29 suggests that Duke Zhou killed his older brother, King Wu, in order to take over the throne, but the historical records show that wasn't true.)
(Chapters: 14, 29, 33)

Duke Zhuang was from the state of Lu (c. 681 BCE).
(Chapters: 19)

Earl of Darkness See: Kun Lun Mountains

East Sea (aka Eastern Ocean) is the East China Sea.
(Chapters: 17, 20, 26)

E Lai was a deceitful minister who was killed by his ruler.
(Chapters: 26)

Fan was a small state centered in the present day city of Chang Zi in Shanxi province. In 826 BCE Ji Jing was crowned Zhou King Xuan of the Zhou Dynasty. Zhou King Xuan appointed Zhong Shan Fu as his Prime Minister because he was a very capable administrator. In order to reward Zhong Shan Fu with the services he had rendered to the Zhou Court, Zhou King Xuan conferred him the heritable title of Marquis and also delegated him the authority to rule a district called Fan. Later, the district of Fan was upgraded into statehood and it became to be known as the State of Fan. In 622 BCE the small state of Fan was overtaken by the state of Chu.
(Chapters: 21)

Fang Ming is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Sharp at Steering". He drove the chariot for Huang Di.
(Chapters: 24)

Fa Yan (Book of Rules) was a book of rules and proverbs.
(Chapters: 4)

Fen River starts in the north of Shanxi Province and runs south through Shanxi until it connects with the Huang He (Yellow River). The northernmost part of the Fen River marks the border of what was known as the civilized country of China during the Warring States Period. Anything north of the Fen River was considered to be the land of the barbarians and only hermits or refugees would settle there.
(Chapters: 1)

Fu Xi is the first of three noble emperors. Fu Xi, together with Sui Ren who invented fire and cooked food, and Shan Nong who was the father of agriculture are called San Huang - Three Emperors (3000 -2700 BCE). Historical records show that their achievements actually reflected the economic and social development in China's primitive society. According to folklore Fu Xi ruled from 2952 - 2836 BCE. If we believe the legend, Fu Xi must have been a remarkable person as he was credited with: originating the Chinese writing system, developing a method of tying knots in fibers to designate the days of the calendar; using drawings and graphic signs for words and ideas; the invention of rope, fishing- and hunting- nets, musical instruments, and the original eight trigrams used in the Yi Jing. He was said to have the ability to look at objects in nature and his own body, then be able to create drawings from those things that later developed into the Chinese characters. He also had the ability to look at the eight trigrams and understand the essence of everything. Also attributed to him is the invention of casting oracles by the use of yarrow stalks. Fu Xi is said to have invented the one hundred Chinese family names, and ordered that marriages may only take place between persons bearing different family names.
(Chapters: 4, 6, 10, 16, 21)

Fu Yue See: Wu Ding
(Chapters: 6)

Geng Sang Chu was a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Pruner of the Mulberry Grove", insinuating that he might have been a gardener in charge of the Mulberry grove where silk worms were cultivated.
(Chapters: 23)

Gong Bo (aka Earl of Kung) is said to be an official of the Zhou Dynasty who refused the offer to take over the throne, preferring to stay comfortably in his own territory on Mount Gong Shou.
(Chapters: 28)

Gong Gong was a mythical rebel who wouldn't stop complaining about what Yao was doing, so Yao had him banished to You Dou. His name can be literally translated as "Meddlesome Revolter".
(Chapters: 11)

Gong Sun Long (c. 380 BCE) was a noted member of the Logicians school in Chinese philosophy who lived during the Warring States Period. His most famous work is called "A white horse is not a horse", and is structured as conversation between two parties, with one party proclaiming truth in the statement and the other questioning. The argument plays upon the dual semantic meanings of informal language, in particular the dual interpretations of 'is': "Thus a white horse is not a horse, because the concept of a white horse is not the same as the concept of a horse."
(Chapters: 17, 33)

Gong Sun Yan was minister of war under King Hui of Wei.
(Chapters: 25)

Gong Wen Xuan is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Official Concealed Chariot".
(Chapters: 3)

Gong Yue Xiu is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Happily Resting in Results".
(Chapters: 25)

Gou Jian (aka King Gou Jian of Yue) reigned from 496 - 465 BCE. Guo Jian was the ruler of the state of Yue, but was overthrown by the state of Wu and took off to recuperate on Kuai Ji mountain. Gou Jian spent many years on Kuai Ji mountain, sleeping on thorny firewood and eating bile from a gallbladder every day so as to remember his desire to seek revenge on those who overthrew him. Eventually, with the assistance of his prime minister, Zhong, Gou Jian was able to return to power, but he feared the talents of Zhong and forced him to commit suicide.
(Chapters: 24)

Guang Cheng Zi is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Master Vast Accomplishment".
(Chapters: 11)

Guang Yao is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Bright as Sunshine".
(Chapters: 22)

Guan Long Feng was a respectful and much honored official serving King Jie of Xia. When the king was amusing himself and his wife by ordering 3000 people to kill themselves by jumping into a lake, Guan Long Feng urged him to repent and was imprisoned and tortured to death.
(Chapters: 4, 10, 26)

Guan Yin (aka Yin Xi) was the Warden of the Pass at Hanku Pass between the Yellow River and the Chungnan Mountains. His job was to check the identification of anyone entering or leaving the area known as China. According to the records of the historian Sima Qian, Laozi met Guan Yin as he was leaving China and revealed to Guan Yin the text of the Dao De Jing. Stylized as an immortal, Guan Yin was then lauded as a sage in his own right. His later biographers characterize him as skilled in astrology and thus able to divine Laozi's approach. Guan Yin attained his highest status as Daoist patriarch in Louguan Dao in the sixth century. Several works of this time describe him as a Daoist saint, giving him a supernatural birth and divine faculties, detailing his wondrous meeting with Laozi and attainment of the Dao, outlining a second meeting of the two sages in Chengdu, Sichuan, with the help of a black sheep, and narrating their ecstatic journey around the heavens, and their joint conversion of the barbarians.
(Chapters: 19, 33)

Guan Zhong See: Guan Zi

Guan Zi (aka Guan Zhong) was a politician in the Spring and Autumn Period. He was appointed Prime Minister by Duke Huan of Qi in 685 BCE and died in 645 BCE. Guan Zhong modernized the state of Qi by starting multiple reforms. Politically, he centralized power and divided the state into different villages, each carrying out a specific trade. He also developed a better method for determining who had the talent to be officials. Under Guan Zhong, Qi shifted administrative responsibilities from hereditary aristocrats to professional bureaucrats. Guan Zhong also introduced several important economic reforms. He created a uniform tax code. He also used state power to encourage the production of salt and iron. During his term of office, the state of Qi became much stronger and Duke Huan of Qi became respected as an authoritative figure among the other states.
(Chapters: 18, 19, 24, 29)

Gu Kuang See: Shi Kuang

Guzhu "Lonely Bamboo", was a small state in what is now southern Manchuria. It was the home of Bo Yi and Shu Qi, who have been renowned for sacrificing themselves instead of taking over leadership of Guzhu and waging war on other states. Around 664 BCE, the joint forces of the armies of Yan and Qi conquered the state of Guzhu.
(Chapters: 28, 29)

Han was a state in central China directly between the states of Chu to the south, Song to the East, Wei to the north and Qin to the west, thus becoming a frequent target many battles, especially being attacked by Qin. Although the Han had attempted several self strengthening reforms, it would never overcome the Qin and was the first of the Six states to be conquered by Qin in 260 BCE.
(Chapters: 28, 30)

Han Dan was the capital city in the state of Zhao.
(Chapters: 10, 17)

Han River is the largest tributary of the Yangtze River. It travels through Hubei and Shensi Provinces.
(Chapters: 12)

Hao River is a small tributary of the Yangtze River in Anhui Province.
(Chapters: 17)

He Xu (aka He Xu Shi) was a mythological ruler predating Huang Di (pre-3000 BCE). The kingdom he ruled over was thought to be like Shangri-La.
(Chapters: 9, 10)

Hong Meng is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Silly Goose".
(Chapters: 11)

Hua Ji is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Clever Inspector", possibly referring to someone who had a keen eye and sense of smell, which could be used to inspect any food or gifts which were presented to the ruler.
(Chapters: 24)

Hua Jie Shu is a fictitious character. His name depicts an uncle who has cleverly eluded the boundaries of his family. The eldest son in a family (Shu - uncle) was supposed to take responsibility for making important decisions for the rest of his siblings and their families. Hua Jie Shu probably refers to a man who has left the confines of his family and become a recluse (spiritual hermit).
(Chapters: 18)

Huan is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Monotonous".
(Chapters: 32)

Huan (Duke of Qi) (aka Ziao Bai, his given name) was the best-known ruler of the state of Qi. He reigned from 685 - 643 BCE. The moment he took the throne, Lord Huan appointed Guan Zhong, a great politician, to be his Prime Minister. The outstanding Prime Minister started a reform which made Qi the strongest state of the time. After the reform had succeeded, Lord Huan was able to make a greater impact outside his state. Under the slogan of "respecting the king and defending against the barbarian", Lord Huan gained hegemony among the states. He helped the states of Yan, Xing and Wei against the barbarian troops. He also called for some states to attack the state of Chu in order to "defend the honor of the king".
(Chapters: 5, 13, 19, 24, 29)

Huan Dou was a mythical rebel who wouldn't stop complaining about what Yao was doing, so Yao had him exiled to Chong Mountain. Huan Dou can be literally translated as "Loud Protester".
(Chapters: 11)

Huang Di (aka Yellow Emperor) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. He is said by tradition to have reigned from approx. 2698 - 2599 BCE. Huang Di was said to be the Chinese God of central heaven, ruling both the world of men and of Gods. Huang Di's palace on Earth was in the Kunlun mountains. He is said to have subdued the warring tribes at the dawn of Chinese civilization and to have taught them mathematics, medical practices, musical scales, the written language, and many other things. He is also credited with the invention of the compass, the pottery wheel, and the breeding of silkworms. He is considered to have been a determining influence in establishing Chinese social order, in that he allocated a name to each family.
(Chapters: 2, 6, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18, 20, 21, 22, 24, 29, 33)

Huang Liao was probably an independent philosopher/debater who wasn't associated with any of the schools in the north. The only reference to him in the historical texts is in Zhuangzi.
(Chapters: 33)

Huang Zhong and Da Lu were ancient pieces of classical music. This type of music was only performed by the very best musicians in the gardens of the king.
(Chapters: 8)

Huang Zi Gao Ao was probably a fictitious scholar. His name can be literally translated as "Brilliant Master of Speaking Right Out".
(Chapters: 19)

Huan Tuan (c. 380 BCE) was a noted member of the Logicians school in Chinese philosophy who lived during the Warring States Period. Huan Tuan was of the same mind as Gong Sun Long.
(Chapters: 33)

Hua Zi was supposedly an elder statesman who served under King Hui, but he might have been a fictitious character.
(Chapters: 25)

Hu Bu Xie, Wu Guang, Bo Yi, Shu Qi, Ji Zi, Xu Yu, Ji Tuo, and Shen Tu Di were men who were moralists and reformers in ancient times who ended up being killed or committed suicide.
(Chapters: 6)

Huizi (aka Hui Shi) (c. 380 - 305 BCE) belonged to a school of philosophers called Logicians. He was a master debater who believed that all things were part of one larger whole and he attempted to prove that using rational knowledge. Although Zhuangzi also believed that all things were part of one larger whole, he went about expressing his ideas using abstractions. Huizi and Zhuangzi had many interesting discussions, and Huizi was Zhuangzi's favorite debating partner.
(Chapters: 1, 2, 5, 17, 18, 24, 25, 26, 27, 33)

Hu Zi is referred to in Zhuangzi as being a teacher of Liezi, but there is no other record of Hu Zi.
(Chapters: 7)

Ji - Only mentioned in Chapter 1, there's little known about the minister Ji other than what is stated in the Zhuangzi. If the king was having a conversation with a man named Ji, then he must have been one of his wise ministers.
(Chapters: 1)

Jia (state of) Victor Mair suggests: "The sinograph for Chia [Jia] is probably a miswriting of the graphically similar character for Yin (i.e., the Shang Dynasty), bu which is intended its successor dukedom, Sung [Song]. The latter state was permitted to survive under the Chou [Zhou] Dynasty as a haven for the remnants of the Yin aristocracy." Or maybe Jia refers to the Jia clan - the people of Chu?
(Chapters: 20)

Ji Che is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Supportive Younger Brother".
(Chapters: 12)

Jian (aka Duke Jian of Qi) ruled the state of Qi from 414-400 BCE. His reign was very short, and not much is known about him. He was appointed to his position after the death of his father, but probably was an ineffectual ruler since he relegated most of the duties of state to his ministers (See: Tian Cheng) and was assassinated shortly thereafter.
(Chapters: 10)

Jian De Zhi Guo is probably a fictitious city. It's name can be literally translated as "Nation of Established Virtue".
(Chapters: 20)

Jiang Lu Mian is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Striving for a Backbone".
(Chapters: 12)

Jiangsu was a small area in eastern China that was far removed from the center of Chinese civilization.
(Chapters: 28)

Jian Wu is a fictitious Daoist. His name can be literally translated as "My Shoulder", possibly referring to someone who was following the words of another person and simply added muscle to his teacher's beliefs without being able to see things differently.
(Chapters: 1, 7, 21)

Jie (aka King Jie of Xia) was the last ruler of the Xia dynasty (c. 1766 BCE), and is blamed for its fall. He reputedly mistreated his people and became a tyrant. Records from the later Qin dynasty say that during the last year of Jie's reign, ice formed during the summer mornings and frosts occurred through July. Heavy rainfall toppled buildings, hot and cold weather arrived in disorder, and crops failed.
(Chapters: 4, 6, 11, 17, 22, 26, 28, 29)

Jie Yu is a fictitious Daoist. His name can be literally translated as "Car Accident Victim." He is also referred to as "the madman of Chu".
(Chapters: 1, 4)

Jie Zi may have been one of the many philosophers of the time, or he may have been a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Catching hold of the nature of birth".
(Chapters: 25)

Jie Zi Tui was a devoted official of Duke Wen in the seventh century BCE. Jie even slashed his thigh to feed Prince Wen of Qin during the prince’s exile in foreign countries after escaping a rebellion in his country. After Wen returned and became king, however, he ignored Jie's loyalty, which made Jie so depressed that he went to the mountains and became a hermit. Prince Wen later recognized Jie's loyalty and tried to persuade him to return to the court to serve him. Jie, however, refused and hid in the mountains with his old mother. In the hope of making Jie return, the king ordered that the mountain be set on fire, but Jie refused to come out. After the fire, Jie was found dead under a gutted willow tree. From then on, the king ordered his subjects not to make fires and to eat cold food on that day in memory of Jie.
(Chapters: 29)

Jin was one of the most powerful states in the Spring and Autumn Period , based in Shanxi province. Jin was founded by Tang Shuyu, a descendant of the Zhou royal family. At the end of the Spring and Autumn Period, Jin was split into three states: Han, Zhao and Wei. The split of Jin is sometimes referred to as the beginning of the subsequent Warring States Period; all three new states later became prominent states in the new period.
(Chapters: 2, 12, 23, 29, 30)

Jing Shi is probably a fictitious town. It's name can be literally translated as "Area of Uncultivated Trees".
(Chapters: 4)

Jing Shou (The) See: Mulberry Grove (The) and Jing Shou (The)
(Chapters: 3)

Ji Qu was probably a legendary medical practitioner and researcher.
(Chapters: 4)

Ji Tuo See: Hu Bu Xie, Wu Guang, Bo Yi, Shu Qi, Ji Zi, Xu Yu, Ji Tuo, and Shen Tu Di
(Chapters: 6, 26)

Jiu Fang Yin is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Nine Methods for Descriptions", which probably refers to a physiognomer - one who claims to be able to read a person's future by their physical appearance.
(Chapters: 24)

Ji Xian is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "One Who Can Influence the Seasons".
(Chapters: 7, 14)

Ji Xing Zi was a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Master Careful Inspection".
(Chapters: 19)

Ji Zhen may have been one of the many philosophers of the time, or he may have been a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Reality of the natural seasons".
(Chapters: 25)

Ji Zi was a moralist who feigned insanity in order to avoid following his ruler's mandates. See: Hu Bu Xie, Wu Guang, Bo Yi, Shu Qi, Ji Zi, Xu Yu, Ji Tuo, and Shen Tu Di
(Chapters: 6, 25, 26)

Ju Ci mountains are located on the western side of Yunnan province, at the eastern end of the Himalayas. It is the place where Huang Di and Feng Hou, one of his ministers, met to discuss military theory and troop disposition.
(Chapters: 24)

Ju Liang was possibly a fictitious character, or he could have been an extremely strong man in Daoist legends who lost all sense of his strength after his spiritual cultivation.
(Chapters: 6)

King of Chu - There were many kings who reigned in the state of Chu over the centuries, but the one referred to in chapter 21 is probably King Mu of Chu, due to the fact that he was king when the state of Fan was taken over by Chu in 622 BCE. King Mu reigned from 625 - 614 BCE, and has also been called "The Majestic/Reverent King of Chu". King Mu came to power after he killed his father, King Cheng of Chu. The Chu then extended their influence east and vanquished numerous minor states. Chu influence reached to Yunnan in the south and the Yellow River in the north. We don't know which king of Chu is referred to in each chapter of the Zhuangzi. Maybe it just means "the king of the area" rather than a specific person?
(Chapters: 21, 24, 25)

King Dan Fu was the grandfather of King Wen, founder of the Zhou dynasty 1027 BCE.
(Chapters: 28)

King Hui See: King of Wei

King Ji was the father of King Wen of Zhou. Even though he was the son of a concubine, he managed to impress his father enough to have him appoint him the new king upon his death, usurping the hierarchal position of his two brothers who were the sons of the king's legal wife.
(Chapters: 29)

King of Qin might not refer to any specific king in chapter 32, but just a leader of the state of Qin.
(Chapters: 32)

King of Song might not refer to any specific king in chapter 32, but just a leader of the state of Song.
(Chapters: 32)

King of Wei (aka Ying of Wei, King Hui of Wei, and later as King Hui of Liang) was the third ruler of the state of Wei during the Warring States Period. He was a grandson of marquis Wen of Wei , the founder of the state, and a son of marquis Wu of Wei. He was credited for moving the capital from Anyi to Daliang (modern Kaifeng) which facilitated economical growth of his state; hence his state was also called Liang thereafter. In 371 BCE, marquis Wu of Wei died without specifying a successor, causing Wei to fall into an internal war of succession. After three years of civil war, Zhao and Han, sensing an opportunity, invaded Wei. On the verge of conquering Wei, the leaders of Zhao and Han fell into disagreement on what to do with Wei and both armies mysteriously retreated. As a result, King Hui of Wei (still a marquis at the time) was able to ascend onto the throne of Wei. In 354 BCE, King Hui of Wei initiated a large scale attack at Zhao, which some historians believe was to avenge the earlier near destruction of Wei.
(Chapters: 1, 6, 20, 22, 25, 26)

King of Wu (aka King Fu Chai) was the last king of Wu (reigned 495 - 473 BCE). He was the son of King He Lu of Wu. At the beginning of his reign, he defeated the troops of Yue in Fujiao and captured the capital city of Yue. Instead of annexing his enemy state thoroughly, as suggested by his Prime Minister Wu Zixu, he made peace with King Gou Jian of Yue. After this battle, he built Canal Han and pushed his army northward. In Ailing, his army defeated the state of Qi. In 482 BCE, as he attempted to get the hegemony in the dukes' meeting in Huangchi, his capital was taken by surprise by King Gou Jian of Yue. Some years later, the state of Yue defeated and annexed Wu, and King Fu Chai committed suicide in his palace.
(Chapters: 1, 24)

King Wen of Zhao (aka King Huiwen) reigned over the state of Zhao from 299 - 266 BCE.
(Chapters: 30)

King Wen of Zhou (aka Xi Bochang) (1099 –1050 BCE) was the founder of the Western Zhou Dynasty (11th century - 771 BCE). King Wen attacked neighboring states to expand the territory of Zhou and moved its capital from Zhouyuan to the western bank of the Feng River in Chang'an County. Its expansion east brought it into sharp conflict with the Shang Dynasty. King Zhou of the Shang once imprisoned King Wen in Youli. Subsequently, King Wen's ministers and subordinates kept presenting tribute of treasure and beautiful women to King Zhou for the release of King Wen. Upon returning home, King Wen made speedy preparation to attack the Shang, whose corrupt practice had caused much dissension. Before his death, King Wen instructed his heir, King Wu, to commence preparation to overthrow the Shang. King Wen is also known for his contributions to the Yi Jing. The most commonly used sequence of the sixty four hexagrams in the Yi Jing is attributed to King Wen and is usually referred to as the King Wen sequence.
(Chapters: 14, 21, 28, 29, 33)

King Wu was the second son of King Wen of Zhou. After ascending to the throne, King Wu tried to accomplish his father's dying wish, the defeat of the Shang Dynasty. King Wu employed many wise government officials, and the Zhou government began to grow stronger. In 1048 BCE, King Wu called for a meeting of the surrounding dukes at Meng Jin. More than 800 dukes came to the meeting. In 1046 BC, seeing that the Shang government was in a shambles, King Wu launched an attack along with many neighboring dukes. King Zhou sent an army of 170,000 soldiers who turned against him, clearing the way for King Wu's forces. In the Battle of Muye, Shang forces were destroyed, and King Di Xin of Shang set his palace on fire and burned himself to death. King Wu now controlled the area of the former Shang and other small states. But he was confronted by the problem of how to control the large territories in the east. He finally resolved to adopt a policy of "enfeoffing relatives and establishing feudatories to protect the Zhou". He thus granted titles and territories to his relatives and meritorious officials to establish fiefs in different areas. Each of these fiefs became a base for governing the people in that area and served as a strategic point of defense for the ruling Dynasty. He died three years later in 1043 BCE. His brother, Duke Zhou, then took over control of the state.
(Chapters: 12, 29, 33)

King Zhao was the ruler of Chu from 515 - 488 BCE.
(Chapters: 28)

Kongzi See: Confucius

Kuai (state of) see: Zong, Kuai and Xu Ao
(Chapters: 2)

Kuai (aka Zi Kuai, King of Yan) was the king of a small state known as Yan. When Yan was being attacked by the larger states, Kuai decided to give over the throne to one of his ministers, Zhi, in 316 BCE. The state of Yan was soon overthrown.
(Chapters: 17)

Kuai Ji mountain lies to the southwest of Shaoxing, and was known as the place where Emperor Yu met with his high officials to reward them for merits in assisting him with controlling the great floods.
(Chapters: 24, 26)

Kuan River may have been a small tributary of the Huai River in a remote area of southwest China that drained into the East Sea.
(Chapters: 26)

Kuang (aka Kuang Tung) was a small and remote province in the state of Song in southern China on the South China Sea.
(Chapters: 17)

Kuang Jie Yu is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated "Lunatic Hit by a Chariot".
(Chapters: 7)

Kuang Zi (aka Kuang Zhang) was a friend of the philosopher, Mencius, who told Mencius that he was disowned by his father for criticizing his father's behavior.
(Chapters: 29)

Kui is said to be the crown prince and son of King Wen of Zhao. I can't find anything more about him - was he King Wen's successor, King Xiaocheng?
(Chapters: 30)

Kun is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Doormat".
(Chapters: 24)

Kun Hun is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Keeper of the Inner Gate". The keeper of an inner gate of the palace had to be completely trusted by the ruler, as he was required to know who should be allowed into the palace.
(Chapters: 24)

Kun Lun Mountains is the tallest and broadest mountain range in China, extending from west to east across most of southern China. What was referred to as the Kun Lun Mountain was believed to be a Daoist Paradise, and might have been another name for Mount Tai. According to the legends, King Mu (976-922 BCE) of the Zhou Dynasty discovered there the Jade Palace of Huang Di. The Kun Lun mountains were believed to be the resting place of the Immortals. The mounds of the Earl of Darkness could refer to sacred areas where Immortals were said to have become enlightened and moved on to another plane of existence.
(Chapters: 6, 18, 22)

Lao Lai Zi may be another name for the author of the Dao De Jing, Laozi. However, he may simply be a lessor known philosopher/Daoist teacher, not Laozi. His name can be literally translated as "Old Weeds".
(Chapters: 26)

Lao Long Ji is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Old Lucky Dragon".
(Chapters: 22)

Laozi (aka Lao Dan) is considered to be the author of the Dao De Jing. He is also considered to be the father of Daoism, since he was the first person to use the term "Dao" as the basis of his philosophy. Sima Qian, the Grand Historian (ca. 145-86 BCE), was the first person to write an account of Laozi's life, and there are many theories surrounding the mystical personage of Laozi, including the idea that he was born as an old man with a long white beard. Although the historians don't agree on who Laozi was, as there is no actual record of his birth or death, he has been honored as the father of Daoism and as a deity by religious Daoists.
(Chapters: 3, 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 21, 22, 23, 25, 27, 33)

Lian Shu is a fictitious Daoist. His name can be literally translated as "From a Long Line of Uncles", possibly referring to someone who had gotten his insights from the teachings of many various people in the past.
(Chapters: 1)

Liang (aka Bian Liang) was the capital city of the state of Wei. It's now the capital of Honan, Kai Feng. The state of Wei has also been called Liang by historians to distinguish it from another state named Wei which arose at a later date.
(Chapters: 17, 25, 27)

Liezi (aka Lie Yukow) is the author of a book known as "The Liezi", which is held up with "The Dao De Jing" and "The Zhuangzi" as one of the three exemplars of ancient Daoist philosophy. Until recently, Liezi was considered to have been a fictitious or legendary person, but since his existence was documented in texts other than the Zhuangzi, some think he was actually an early philosopher. He is said to have been born around 400 BCE and was a citizen of the state of Zheng, but never held a political position. During the reign of Emperor Zhenzong of Song , "The Liezi" was honored as the “True Classic of Simplicity and Vacuity and Perfect Virtue”.
(Chapters: 1, 7, 18, 19, 21, 28, 32)

Li Ji (a beautiful woman) See: Mao Qiang and Li Ji
(Chapters: 2)

Li Lu might have been a mythological person, but there is no reference to him in historical records. His name can be literally translated as "Disease Resistant", which could possibly refer to the fact that he was held up as the first person to have been a doctor.
(Chapters: 10)

Ling (Duke of Wei) was an official in Wei from 534 - 492 BCE. He was an unscrupulous person who enjoyed wine, women and song and it's been said that he also had an affair with one of his male ministers. He was very interested in the tactics of war.
(Chapters: 4, 5, 20, 25)

Lin Hui is probably a fictitious character, or he could be someone mentioned in a legend. His name can be literally translated as "Returned to the Forest".
(Chapters: 20)

Lin Qie was a fictitious character. Hia name can be literally translated as "Temporary Houseboy".
(Chapters: 20)

Liu Xia Ji was a counselor in the state of Lu under Duke Xi (659-627 BCE) who was admired by Confucius. He was supposedly the older brother of Robber Zhi.
(Chapters: 29)

Li Xu might have been a mythological person, but there is no reference to him in historical records. His name can be literally translated as "Raiser of Beautiful Horses", which could possibly refer to the fact that he was held up as the first person to have tamed and raised horses.
(Chapters: 10)

Li Zhu was a legendary character who had such keen eyesight that he was able to see the tip of a feather and spot a needle in a haystack.
(Chapters: 8, 10, 12)

Long Feng See: Guan Long Feng

Lord Wen Hui is probably a fictional character. His name can be literally translated as "Kind Gentle Official".
(Chapters: 3)

Lord Yuan of Song (aka Duke Yuan) was a minister in the state of Song c. 531-517 BCE.
(Chapters: 21, 24, 26)

Lu was an ancient state founded in the 10th century BCE. The state's capital was in Qufu and its territory mainly covered the central and southwest regions of modern Shandong Province. It was bordered to the north by the powerful state of Qi and to the south by the powerful state of Chu. Although a Qi invasion was defeated in the Battle of Changshao in 684 BCE, the state was in decline during the Spring and Autumn Period. Lu was annexed in 256 BC by the state of Chu. Lu was the home state of Confucius, and The Annals of Spring and Autumn was written to record the history of Lu.
(Chapters: 5, 10, 12, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, 28, 29, 31, 33)

Lu Ju is probably a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Hasty and Blunt".
(Chapters: 24)

Lu Liang Mountains is a system of ranges in the west and southwest of Shansi, separating the north-south section of the Yellow River from the valley of its tributary, the Fen River.
(Chapters: 19)

Lu River is in modern Yunnan province.
(Chapters: 28)

Man Gou De is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Satisfied With What He Has".
(Chapters: 29)

Mao Guang is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Dim Bulb".
(Chapters: 28)

Mao Qiang and Li Ji were names given to two women who were considered to be the most beautiful women in the world. There is no historical record of their actual existence, but throughout the centuries Chinese artists have painted their own concepts of what they would look like, and it is said to bring one a great sense of peace to create paintings of them.
(Chapters: 2)

Marquis of Fan was the ruler of the small state of Fan when it was overtaken by the state of Chu in 622 BCE. I don't know anything else about him.
(Chapters: 21)

Marquis of Jian He may be a fictitious character, or he may be the marquis in charge of a small district near the Jian River (he=river) in southern China, Guangdong province.
(Chapters: 26)

Marquis of Lu could refer to Duke Ai of Lu. See: Ai (Duke of Lu 494 - 468 BCE).
(Chapters: 19, 20)

Marquis of Sui - Sui was an area renowned for producing exquisite pearls. There is a local legend that the Marquis of Sui once healed a wounded snake and was rewarded with an exceptionally fine pearl that became known as the pearl of Sui.
(Chapters: 28)

Marquis Tian Mou has been claimed to be the same person as King Wei of Qi (357 - 320 BCE), however there are no records of King Wei ever having been called by that name. If Tian Mou wasn't King Wei, he was probably someone in a position of power under the king.
(Chapters: 25)

Marquis Wen of Wei was the foremost official (427 - 387 BCE) in the state of Wei to carry out extensive government reforms. His reforms were carried out by noted Confucian scholars. Wen also carried out legal and military reforms. He was one of the first leaders to implement professional training for his soldiers and use of bells, drums, and gongs to control his soldiers’ maneuvers. Through his military tactics he was able to win freedom for the state of Wei in 400 BCE.
(Chapters: 21)

Marquis Wu of Wei was the son of Marquis Wen of Wei and ruled Wei from 395 - 370 BCE. He promoted the idea of rewarding scholastic efforts.
(Chapters: 24)

Marquis Zhao Xi was an official in the state of Han.
(Chapters: 28)

Master Huazi was possibly an advisor to Marquis Zhao Xi of Han.
(Chapters: 28)

Master Yang is referred to as the prime minister of the state of Zheng, but that could be a fictitious name.
(Chapters: 28)

Meng Sun Cai could possibly be a sage from the state of Lu, a fictitious character, or a reference to someone else by a similar name.
(Chapters: 6)

Meng Zi Fan is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Elder Great Mercenary".
(Chapters: 6)

Men Wu Gui is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Funeral Director (Exit: "No demons allowed") ".
(Chapters: 12)

Miao Gu She Mountains is a fictitious mountain range. It can be literally translated as "small grassy hills resembling the appearance of a woman's curves". The inference is that this is a sacred mountain where religious hermits live.
(Chapters: 1)

Ming Mountain was a mystical mountain far to the north that was said to be a resting place of the Immortals.
(Chapters: 14)

Min Zi was one of Confucius' disciples.
(Chapters: 5)

Mount Dai See: Mount Taishan

Mount Gong Shou is said to be the fiefdom overseen by Gong Bo.
(Chapters: 28)

Mount Heng is a tall mountain range in Henan Province, central China.
(Chapters: 30)

Mount Hua is in the eastern part of Shanxi Province. It got its name because from a distance it looks like a flower, "hua".
(Chapters: 12, 33)

Mount Kong Tong is probably a fictitious mountain. It can be literally translated as "Sky High Mountain".
(Chapters: 11)

Mount Qi is in the southern section of the province of Shensi where King Wen eventually established the Zhou Dynasty. It's also the site of the original oracles which form the Yi Jing.
(Chapters: 28)

Mount Taishan (aka Mount Tai, Mount Dai), with its main peak rising 1,545 meters above sea level, is in central Shandong Province. Since ancient times, it has been a mountain held in high esteem by the Chinese people. It is known as the “First of the Five Sacred Mountains”. It ranks third among the five mountains in terms of height and has been religiously worshipped for more than 3000 years. Over time, this worship evolved into an official imperial rite and Mount Tai became one of the principal places where the emperor would pay homage to Heaven (on the summit) and Earth (at the foot of the mountain). In the Spring and Autumn Period , the mountain lay on the boundary between the competing States of Qi (north of the mountain) and Lu (to the south). In the ensuing Warring States Period , the State of Qi erected a long wall to protect itself against an invasion. Ruins of this wall are still present today.
(Chapters: 1, 6, 29, 30)

Mozi was a philosopher of the Hundred Schools of Thought during the early Warring States Period. He founded the school of Mohism and argued strongly against Confucianism and Daoism. The school did not survive the Qin Dynasty. Most historians believe that Mozi was a member of the lower artisan class who managed to climb his way to an official post. He was a master engineer and craftsman, designing everything from mechanical birds to "cloud ladders" used to besiege city walls. Though he did not hold a high official position, Mozi was sought out by various rulers as an expert on fortification, and managed to attract a large following during his lifetime which rivaled that of Confucius. His pacifism led Mozi to travel from one crisis zone to another through the ravaged landscape of the Warring States, trying to dissuade rulers from their plans of conquest. In contrast to those of Confucius, Mozi's moral teachings emphasized self-reflection and authenticity rather than obedience to ritual. Mozi exhorted the gentleman to lead a life of asceticism and self-restraint, renouncing both material and spiritual extravagance. One of Mozi's strongest ideals was that of Universal Love, which contradicted the Confucian ideal of filial piety.
(Chapters: 12, 29, 33)
Mohist (Chapter: 2, 8, 10, 11, 14, 22, 24, 29, 32)

Mulberry Grove (The) and Jing Shou (The) were ancient pieces of classical music. This type of music was only performed by the very best musicians in the gardens of the king.
(Chapters: 3)

Nan Bo Zi Qi is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Exalted Count of Southern Darkness."
(Chapters: 4, 24)

Nan Bo Zi Qi is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Exalted Count of Southern Curiosity".
(Note: He is not the same character by that name mentioned in chapters 4 and 24.)
(Chapters: 6)

Nan Guo Zi Qi is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Mr. Intense of a Southern neighborhood", possibly referring to someone who took his spiritual teachings very seriously.
(Chapters: 2)

Nan Hai literally translates as "South Sea", and it refers to what is now known as the South China Sea. In ancient China it was believed that the earth was a large square of land bordered by the Nan Hai to the south and the Bei Hai (North Sea) to the north. The territory in the middle included all the land now known as China. Zhuangzi created a name for the emperor of the Nan Hai: Shu (The Fixer).
(Chapters: 7, 17)

Nan Rong Chu is a fictitious character. His name can be literally translated as "Honorably Escaped from the South", possibly referring to the fact that he was someone who hadn't been kicked out of his state for wrongdoing but had left of his own accord.
(Chapters: 23)





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